Quick IT Guide

What is IT?

IT, which is an abbreviation for information technology, is the science of utilizing computers for storing, retrieving, transmitting and manipulating data. A subset of information and communication technology (ICT) it’s one of the most sought after field of sciences.

IT is commonly used to refer to computers and computer networks, but it also includes other information distribution devices such as television and telephones. One of the fastest growing streams in the world, IT has brought about a revolution in all the spheres of the world, making it inevitable, as we will shortly discuss. Today, IT is used in various fields: banking, schools, colleges, medicines, business, etc to serve various purposes.

General Dynamics Information Technology:

In reality, information technology (IT) innovations have been a process which includes the below given three entities:

  • promoters, who tend to facilitate the process,
  • inhibitors, who tend to slow down the process,
  • Imitators who are influenced by both promoters and inhibitors.

IT innovations are influenced by these actors, and so the study of these dynamics is imperative. This research seeks to develop a system dynamics model to capture the interactive dynamics of IT adoption in a complex environment involving promoters, inhibitors, and imitators. Based on a set of experiments, we investigate via simulation, the behavior of a typical diffusion and adoption process, drawing useful managerial implications for technology policy makers. What-if analyses experiments are carried out in order to obtain further insights into policy design and evaluation for effective technology management.

Information Science and Technology:

An interdisciplinary field, information science is primarily concerned with analyzing, collecting, classifying, manipulating, storing, retrieving, moving, and protecting information. It’s the study of applying and using knowledge in organizations, including interactions with people, organizations and other information systems. The aim is to create, manipulate and understand information systems. A superset of computer science, it includes diverse fields like archival science, cognitive science, communications, etc within it.

Information Technology Programs:

Programs in Information technology are the various Bachelor, Master and certificate programs which the candidate can pursue.

  • Certificates in Information Technology: They are usually six to twelve-month courses that certify the student as proficient in one particular area of information technology.
  • The Bachelor Degree Program in Information Technology: It’s similar to the Associate Degree program but there are many general education requirements. The program produces individuals with a broad range of information technology knowledge.
  • The Post Graduation Degree Program in IT: It’s a degree which can only be done after a bachelor’s degree is pursued. It consists of advanced level of studies and students gain high level of specialization.
  • Training in I.T.: Provided by institutes, either for short terms (few weeks to a couple of month) or long terms (annual trainings), they can be given for entry level jobs by recruiters, or can be taken voluntarily by candidates in various privately run institutes.

Information Technology Principles:

Principles of Information Technology can vary to the context with which we are talking in. They can be a set of rules that should be followed by a person dealing with the branch of Information technology, like a set given below:

  1. Business strategy must be the inspiration behind technology decisions.
  2. The technical complexity and diversity should be minimized.
  3. Build for competitive advantage and quality.
  4. Build modular, loosely coupled solutions, so that they are independent of each other.
  5. Build for reuse and explore reusable assets as far as possible.
  6. Prefer market leading vendors, products and service providers while making choices.
  7. Create value driven technology solutions, and deliver what is required.
  8. Data is a corporate asset, basically on what IT industry and technology is built for.

Information Communications Technology

ICT (information and communications technology) is an umbrella term, used to stress the role of “unified” communications and the integration of telecommunications, computers as well as necessary enterprise software, and other devices. This includes radio, television, cellular phones, computers and networks, satellite systems and so on. Since ICT as a concept is an ever evolving branch, a consistent definition can’t be included. Despite that, ICT broadly includes whatever helps us store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receive information electronically in a digital form.

The relevance of ICT lies less in the technology itself rather than in its ability to create greater access to information and communication in underserved populations. Organizations for the promotion of ICTs have been established across the globe. The reason is the fear: unless less technologically advanced areas have a chance to get developed, the increasing technological advances in developed nations will only serve the ones who are already enjoying the same. Now, the gap between the people having the access to technology and the ones who lack is only getting extended.

Information Technology Security:

Information Technology Security, also known as IT Security is the process of taking precautions and measures, using applications and systems designed. The aim is to secure, protect and safeguard information, and utilize technology against any unauthorized access, misuse of data, malfunctioning in the process, illegal modification, and destruction of content; thereby preserving the confidentiality, integrity, availability, and ability to perform the permitted critical function it intends to. It’s often a challenge to balance the demands of users versus the dire need for data confidentiality and integrity. For example, access to a network from a remote location, for an employee, in cases of work from home, opens a number of vulnerabilities and security challenges for a network administrator. Variety of firewalls and other system/network software are responsible for IT security.

Internet security is a branch of IT security specifically related to the Internet, in extensive use nowadays. Involving browser security and network security on a more general level, it applies to other applications or operating systems on a whole. The aim is to abide by certain rules and measures so as to prevent attacks over the Internet. The Internet is not a very secure channel for exchanging information, and thus a high risk of intrusion, fraud, etc can happen over it. Different methods have been used to protect the transfer of data, including encryption among others.

Information Systems Technology

An information system is defined as set of coordinated network of components, responsible for producing, distributing and or processing information. It differs from IT in the following ways:

  • Origin:Information systems have been in existence since pre-mechanical era, whereas IT is mostly associated with invention of computers.
  • Development:Information systems have seen a good deal of evolution, i.e. from manual record keeping to the current cloud storage system. Similarly, IT is seeing changes with respect to faster processor, constantly shrinking size of storage devices, etc.
  • Business Application:Businesses have been using information systems for example in form of manual books of accounts to TALLY. Information technology has helped efficiency, productivity and precision across companies.

Definition of Information Technology:

Information technology (noun) is defined as “the study or use of systems (especially computers and telecommunications) for storing, retrieving, and sending information”.

Another way of defining IT is: the technology involving the development, maintenance, and use of computer systems, software, and networks for the processing and distribution of data.

Different researchers and authors have their own version of the definition, but the basic idea remains the same: data processing using technology. In business aspect, the Information Technology Association of America has defined information technology as “the study, design, development, application, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems”.

Information Technology Services:

IT services are services that make use of modern technology in order to deliver them. For example, Internet service providers (ISPs), Web hosts, and technical support companies are certain IT services. However, other services like graphic design, audio/video production, and scientific engineering also fall under the scope of technology services. Therefore, while technology services are often related to IT, they may be associated with other forms of technology as well. IT services are basically professional services designed to facilitate the use of technology by enterprises and end users. Technology services provide specialized technology-oriented solutions by combining the processes and functions of software, hardware, networks, telecommunications and electronics.


Health Information Technology:

Health information technology (health IT or HIT) is the field of IT which involves the design, development, use and maintenance of information systems for the healthcare industry. These information systems are expected to lower costs, improve efficiency and reduce error, thus providing better care and services to the patient.

Electronic health records or EHRs (where the doctor keeps records of your health information), Personal health records or PHRs (which reflect your life outside the doctor’s office and your health priorities) and E-prescribing (which allows the doctor to communicate directly with your pharmacy) are some characteristic features of HIT.

Medical Information Technology:

The medical information technology field is a specialty field that prepares graduates to combine information technology with medical science in order to diagnose and restore to health any issues that may arise in order to facilitate patient care and research.
Handling accounting, preparing medical records, medical bills are all managed under MIT. The practitioners are responsible for computer applications.


Information Technology Jobs

As one of the fastest growing branches of sciences, IT scope in terms of job opportunities is tremendous. Some of those are:

  • Computer Support Specialists or help desk technicians, they help us to keep personal computer maintained. They are able to handle both hardware and software problems at the user level.
  • Computer programmers: They write the codes on which software programs (system or application) runs.
  • Computer systems analysts: They research the needs of a company, as well as the computer systems, and direct strategies for system upgrades, etc. for improving the operator’s efficiency.
  • Information Technology Consultant: An information technology consultant is a third-party service provider, who advises clients on the best use of IT to meet their requirements.
  • Information Technology Manager: An information technology manager is responsible for implementing the organization’s technology infrastructure by monitoring the organization’s operational requirements and suggesting solutions.

Information Technology Courses:

Various certificate, diplomas and degree courses are available across the world, in ivy leagues universities and others.

  • Certificates in Information Technology: They are usually six to twelve-month courses that certify the student as proficient in one particular area of information technology. These programs are widely across universities and could be availed via online and distance learning programs.
  • An Associate Degree Program in Information Technology: Prepares you for an entry-level career as a help desk operator or computer user, providing the student with a broad overview of computer science.
  • The Bachelor Degree Program in Information Technology: It’s similar to the Associate Degree program but there are many general education requirements. The program produces individuals with a broad range of information technology knowledge. ypical information technology courses that are offered in many Bachelor Degree programs in information technology include: computer interface, database administration, web design, business applications and information systems.
  • The Post Graduation Degree Program in Information Technology: It’s a degree which can only be done after a bachelor’s degree is pursued. It consists of advanced level of studies, and lands into jobs which require higher level of specialization in any particular domains.

Information Technology Colleges:

A lot of colleges and universities across the globe are now providing degrees and certificates courses specializing in IT. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Stanford University, University of Toronto, University of California, Indian Institutes of Technology, etc. are some institutes courses of which are highly acknowledged. Various graduate and post graduate courses are available in these institutes, the appropriate among which can be chosen by the candidate according to his/her skill set and interests.

Masters in Information Technology:

Masters degree in IT can be pursued only if one holds a bachelor degree in the same specialization field within IT. Masters in Sciences (MS) in information technology, Masters in Information Technology, Master in Intelligent Embedded Systems, Master of Information Technology and Systems (MITS), Master Program in Internet and Multimedia Engineering, Master of IT in Business (MITB) are some of the masters program in IT.

Information Technology Trainings:

Training in I.T. is provided by institutes, either for short terms (few weeks to a couple of month) or long terms (annual trainings). They can be given for entry level jobs by recruiters, or can be taken voluntarily by candidates in various privately run institutes. Mostly, the candidate is specializes in one of the various domains of I.T. to understand things better. Some branches of specialization are PC repair and support, network administration, web or system security, etc.

Information Technology Degrees:

Bachelor and masters degree are both provided in IT, but they vary with institutes, interests and need of the hour. No matter what, they all require certain prerequisites to be fulfilled to pursue the same. A Bachelor of Information Technology (abbreviations BIT, B. Tech. (IT) or BE (IT)) is an undergraduate degree requiring three to five years of study. While the degree has a major focus on computers and technology, students are also expected to study management and information science, and there is less of mathematics. A degree in information technology can be expected to concentrate on the business and communication applications of computing. Another bachelor degree is Bachelors in Sciences with specialization in IT. The master degrees are elaborated previously.


Information Technology Specialist:

An information technology specialist has the following features:

  • A computer support and security administrator.
  • The main job of the specialist is to assists companies and organizations by managing their hardware, software and networks.
  • They can find work in a wide variety of industries, like business, government and manufacturing.
  • They apply technical expertise to the management of IT systems focusing on a specific computer network, database, or systems administration function.

 Information Technology Consultant:

An information technology consultant the following features:

  • It’s a third-party service provider.
  • They are qualified to advise clients on the best use of IT to meet their requirements.
  • They may work with a professional IT consultancy firm or as independent contractors to deliver services.
  • They conduct a business needs assessment and develop an information systems solution that meets the organization’s objectives.

Information Technology Manager:

An information technology manager the following features:

  • They are responsible for implementing the organization’s technology infrastructure.
  • Monitors the organization’s operational requirements.
  • Research and sort appropriate technology solutions.
  • Builds the most cost-effective and efficient system to achieve those goals.


Information Technology Companies:

Various companies have been in the field of IT for years, working at various areas. Hardware, software, firmware, system software, application software, firewalls, telecommunication devices, etc are some of the domains where the IT companies had worked in, and which are still expanding at a impressive rate. Brands like Apple, Samsung, Cisco, Sony, Oracle, etc have been the most successful brands in the market from years, though they work at varied spheres in IT. The companies are ranked according to the revenue, stock market rates, and other features like turnover, employee-employer relations, etc.

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